Evaluating the Effect of Different Creative Art Therapies on the Self-Efficacy of Adolescents in Terms of Interpersonal Skills. – custom papers

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Evaluating the Effect of Different Creative Art Therapies on the Self-Efficacy of Adolescents in Terms of Interpersonal Skills. – custom papers

Evaluating the Effect of Different Creative Art Therapies on the Self-Efficacy of Adolescents in Terms of Interpersonal Skills.
Below are 3 article.  summarize them and elicit the most studies in the articles that show the effect  of Creative Art such us (drama and dancing) on self efficiency and social skill on adolescent.
Knocking on Shakespeare’s Door:
Drama with Teens for Personal and Social Development
A Qualitative Research Study
Tom Pilutik, MA
“…no form of human communication has such concentrated power to move the heart and stir
the mind as the drama.”
– Alan Reynolds Thompson,
The Anatomy of Drama (1942)
Adolescence is a life-altering stage of development for a young person.  It is a time of
exploration, discovery and expansion of one’s world.  However, this significant period can be
impeded by external factors including environmental issues, peer pressures and internal
conflicts.  In this paper, the author uses a case-study approach to suggest that drama is a powerful
tool in assisting the youth’s growth and development.  Through observation, interviews and
focus groups over a five-month period, the participating youth in Big Brothers Big Sisters’
Broadway Bound Fund drama program were evaluated.  To expand on the findings, this
assessment applies qualitative methods, including theories of drama and drama therapy as well as
theories of personal and social development.  Testimony from the students further reinforces the
outcome of their collective experience in the program.  This study argues that drama is germane
for the adolescent’s personal and social development in that it can help the adolescent gain a
sense of self-confidence, take on leadership roles with poise, increase capacity for empathy and
gain comfort with their bodies.  This qualitative analysis shows that drama can enhance the
student’s ability to collaborate with others while also gaining further insight into oneself.   And
finally, it is suggested that drama can bridge gaps between adult authority and the rebellious teen
by redefining the exchange among teacher and student.
Initially, I was not shocked by what I saw.
The techniques were all very familiar.  Exercises from classical and contemporary drama
theorists such as Linklater (1976), Johnstone (1979), Spolin (1963) and Bogart & Landau (2005)
were all represented honorably.  These reputable methods and techniques of vocalization,
physicalization (Spolin, 1963) and “presence” in the moment are studied and practiced by serious
What did stand out to me were the students in the class.  The large group comprised of
approximately 25 teenagers and pre-teens, male and female, ranging in age from 11 to 17,
coming from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds, were all very invested in the class and
the teacher.  It was obvious that there was more going on in this workshop than just lectures and
My role was to be a fly on the wall as much as possible: to participate with focus and
respect for the work without ever being the focal point or distraction.  I was there to observe the
students without tampering with the environment.  Being a new presence and being the only
male adult in the room made this a challenge.  Playing the role of the good student, I purposely
averted direct eye contact with any of the students and kept my gaze locked on the teacher, Mary
Rose Synek, following her guidance.
At a steady pace, we glided through each exercise with purpose.  Each skill complemented
the former as we continued to move forward, warming up our minds and bodies for the eventual
“real work.”
As we completed each exercise (warming up our voices, sound-and-movement games,
and improvisation skills), I was struck by how much this impacted, and dare I say, attacked, the
very notion of body image and self-image that I so cautiously attempted to protect the students
from upon my arrival.
The next exercise we embarked on was a mirroring exercise, which required us to pair off.
Certain that I was to sit this one out, I moved to the side of the room so as to be out of the way.
The ratio of girls to boys on this particular day was approximately 5 to 1, and the last thing I
expected was to be paired with a female.
I was incorrect in my assumption!  Not only was I participating in the exercise at Mary
Rose’s authoritative behest, but I was paired with a young woman.  As I was immediately thrown
back to the awkwardness of my teenage years in the span of a second, the discomfort in my own
body took over.  The girl and I stood about six or eight inches apart from one another, eyes
locked.  The smiles and giggles immediately assumed control, and we had yet to begin the
Once we began, I had the lead.  With each gesture I made, my fellow student was meant
to follow along with her own movement.  We were, in fact, “mirroring” each other as if we were
each other’s reflection.  Our tasks were to leave judgment and preconceived ideas behind and
find presence in the moment.
My gestures began to speed up, and my partner kept up confidently.  I found comfort in
making jokes with my movements; opening fictitious cupboards, miming opening a jar of peanut
butter and spreading it on an imaginary slice of bread until I heard the firm reminder of our
guide, Mary Rose: “Don’t try to make each other laugh!  This isn’t a competition!”  Was she
referring to me?  Feeling robbed of my good student role, I surveyed the room.  The dedication
Toward Secure Attachment in Adolescent
Relational Development: Advancements From
Sandplay and Expressive Play-Based Interventions
Eric J. Green
University of North Texas at Dallas
Amie C. Myrick
Family and Children’s Services of Central Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland
David A. Crenshaw
Children’s Home of Poughkeepsie, Poughkeepsie, New York
Recently,  the  literature  on  parent-adolescent  attachment  relationships  has  dem-
onstrated associations between secure, positive attachment and (a) lower mental
health difficulties (
Van Doorn, Branje, & Meeus, 2011
), (b) meaningful relation-
ships (
McGee, Williams, Howden-Chapman, Martin, & Kawachi, 2006
), and (c)
increased  career  success  (
Shelton  &  van  den  Bree,  2010
).  In  contrast,  those
adolescents  who  fail  to  form  meaningful  attachments  with  caregivers  appear  to
struggle in these areas. As new relationships develop and alter or dissipate over
time,  adolescents  may  experience  variations  and  fluctuations  in  their  mental
well-being  (
Berger,  Jodl,  Allen,  McElhaney,  &  Kuperminc,  2005
).  This  article
provides  a  comprehensive  literature  review  of  the  most  current  research  in
adolescent  attachment,  as  well  as  clinical  implications  for  play  therapists  who
recognize the significance of the therapeutic dyad when working with adolescents.
Additionally, the article discusses case studies involving the integration of expres-
sive art therapy interventions, such as sandplay (
Donald, 2003
Green 2012
), to
strengthen the adolescent’s overall schema of attachment to ‘secure.’
attachment, adolescents, sandplay
Attachment has been conceptualized traditionally as a pattern of thoughts,
feelings, and behaviors that results from a caregiver’s ability to meet an infant’s
need for closeness (
Black, Grenard, Sussman, & Rohrbach, 2010
Briggs, 2003
Master’s-level  clinicians  typically  learn  this  basic  attachment  concept  while
covering  infancy  and  early  childhood  chapters  in  their  life-span  development
course. However, the discussion is less frequently carried over into adolescence.
Eric J. Green, PhD, LPC-S, RPT-S, Department of Counseling & Human Services, University of
North  Texas  at  Dallas;  Amie  C.  Myrick,  MS,  LCPC,  Family  and  Children’s  Services  of  Central
Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland; David A. Crenshaw, PhD, ABPP, RPT-S, Children’s Home of Pough-
keepsie, Poughkeepsie, New York.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Eric J. Green, University of North
Texas at Dallas, 7300 University Hills Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75241. E-mail:
International Journal of Play Therapy                                                                                                           © 2013 Association for Play Therapy
2013, Vol. 22, No. 2, 90 –102                                                                                                              1555-6824/13/$12.00
DOI:  10.1037/a0032323
Thus, it is likely that many play therapists lack a comprehensive understanding
of how attachment relationships change during adolescence and often adversely
affect psychosocial functioning (
Vera & Shin, 2006
). Therefore, the objectives
of  this  article  are  (a)  to  describe  attachment  issues  in  parent
relationships;  (b)  to  describe  the  salient  aspects  of  adolescent  attachment  for
play  therapists  to  consider  when  formulating  comprehensive  treatment  plans;
and  (c)  to  illuminate  how  the  play  therapy  relationship  and  the  infusion  of
play-based  interventions,  such  as  sandplay,  may  strengthen  opportunities  for
adolescents to develop secure attachments (
Donald, 2003
). The
Association for
Play  Therapy  (2012)
has  defined
play  therapy
as  “the  systematic  use  of  a
theoretical  model  to  establish  an  interpersonal  process  wherein  trained  play
therapists use the therapeutic powers of play to help clients prevent or resolve
psychosocial difficulties and achieve optimal growth and development.”
Attachment  is  a  dynamic  pattern  of  cognitions,  affect,  and  associated  be-
haviors that result from a caregivers’ ability to meet infants’ need for warmth,
nurturance,  and  safe  physical  closeness  (
Berger,  Jodl,  Allen,  McElhaney,  &
Kuperminc,  2005
).  Early  in  life,  children  develop  an  internal  working  model
through their relationships with caregivers. This model incorporates the beliefs
that  either  (a)  one  is  worthy  of  love  and  that  the  world  is  a  predictable  and
positive place (i.e., secure attachment), or (b) one is unlovable and exists in a
world   that   is   unpredictable   and   untrustworthy   (i.e.,   insecure   attachment;
Bowlby, 1982
). Secure and insecure attachments encompass three ideas related
to the notion that parents are able to tolerate or not tolerate, or contain, their
child’s  intense  emotional  experiences  until  children  manage  the  experiences
themselves (
Black et al., 2010
Briggs, 2003
). Disorganized attachment (
Main &
Solomon,  1990
)  is  characterized  by  a  child  who  exhibits  patterns  of  (a)  clear
avoidance  (or  resistance)  in  the  first  reunion  and  then  a  change  to  clear
resistance  (or  avoidance)  in  the  second  reunion  with  a  caretaker(s);  or  (b)
evidence  of  sequential,  contradictory  behavior  across  separation  and  reunion
episodes. This style of broken attachment typically stems from a child experi-
encing  consistent  frightening  and  comforting  messages  simultaneously  from
the  caretaker(s),  usually  resulting  from  trauma  (
Green,  Crenshaw,  &  Kolos,
Although they tend to move toward confiding in peers as they move through
puberty,  many  teenagers  consider  their  parents  primary  supports  and  confidants
Nomaguchi, 2008
). Some adolescents continue to rely on their parents throughout
development;  feeling  secure  in  the  parent
teen  relationship  allows  them  to  em-
brace their curiosity about the world (
Duchesne & Larose, 2007
). Adolescents who
fear that their parents will not consistently provide a secure base are more likely to
fear exploration, uncertainty, and/or vulnerability (
Perl, 2008
Sport Science Review,
vol. XX, No. 5-6, December 2011
The Social-Psychological Outcomes
of  Dance Practice: A Review
ance involvement among the youth has been described in many
terms. Studies regarding the effects of dance practice on youth
show different images. Most refer that dance enhanced personal and social
opportunities, increased levels of socialization and characteristic behavior
among  its  participants.  Socialization  in  dance  differs  according  to  dance
forms, and a person might become socialized into them not only in childhood
and adolescence but also well into adulthood and mature age. The aim of the
present review is to provide an overview of the major findings of studies
concerning the social-psychological outcomes of dance practice. This review
revealed that a considerable amount of researches has been conducted over
the years, revealed positive social- psychological outcomes of dance practice,
in a general population, as well as specifically for adults or for adolescents.
According to dance form the typical personality profile of dancers, danc

ers being introverted, relatively high on emotionality, strongly achievement
motivated and exhibiting less favorable self attitudes. It is proposed that a
better understanding of the true nature of the social-psychological outcomes
of dance practice can be provided if specific influential factors are taken into
account in future research (i.e., participants’ characteristics, type of guidance,
social context and structural qualities of the dance).
: dance, youth, personality traits, socialization
Dance can be performed at home or at a park, without any equipment,
alone or in a group, is a choreographed routine of movements usually performed
to music. Dance involvement in general can be described in diverse terms (ballet,
Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Download Date | 10/12/15 10:15 AM
The socio-psychological outcomes of dance practice
modern dance, jazz, musical, ethnic etc.). There is a variety of music, which
dictates the type of dance to be performed. Dance to the music of jazz, salsa,
hip-hop, ballet, tango, square dance, line dance, belly dancing to name a few.
Commonly held perceptions on the value of involvement in dance are mixed. As
indicated by some, these common beliefs with regard to dance are often largely
based on perceptions obtained through the media and entertainment industry. It
has been pointed out that popular media have created a pleasant image of dance
for (commercial) entertainment purposes. These popularized notions of dance
serve a culture obsessed with glamour (Hagood, 2000).
The duality in the perception regarding the effects of dance is perhaps
even more apparent when it involves youth. On the one side, dance involvement
is believed to provide positive learning opportunities for youth in general, as
well as with regard to specific target groups. In addition, working with the
understanding that is developed through movement can assist not only the
artistic development but also the cognitive and emotional development of the
child (Briskin, 1981). In the majority of countries, dances are introduced during
physical education classes in secondary schools, because it is believed that dance
involvement can provide positive educational opportunities to pupils. In dance
education the analysis of children’s movement has become recognized as one
means through which children can be understood and helped educationally and,
if necessary, therapeutically (North, 1989).
Behavioral problems are a major difficulty that classroom teachers face,
and the possibilities of support in this area from the art form means that dance
moves from being a “frill” in the curriculum to being a necessity. Also, specific
initiatives have been set up in several countries in which educators make use
of  dance  in  their  work  with  socially  deprived  youth.  Allison’s  (1997)  study
provided an example of what meant by using the body to process ideas and
create meaning. In her case study of an inner-city classroom that used dance to
construct intertextual literacy knowledge, she found students liked to use their
kinesthetic abilities as a learning resource for their academic pursuits. Dance
helped students explore the reciprocity between thoughts and actions. It also
enabled students to draw connections between semiotic and linguistic texts such
as books. They learned to see dance as a mental tool for constructing knowledge.
Studies have demonstrated that dance has physiological and psychological
benefits (Hopkins, Murrah, Hoeger, & Rhodes 1990). Adiputra, Alex, Sutjana,
Tirtayasa, and Manuaba (1996), found that dancing lowered the resting heart rate
and blood pressure and increased the maximum aerobic capacity in young male
ballet dancers. Many dance forms provide a total body workout, which tones the
body and provides aerobic benefits, unlike working just the lower body when


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