search in sport management

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February 24, 2021
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hi everyone i need help in this one and make every chapter in different folder pleas so the total going to be six search winch is mean 6 folder the capers are 4,6,7,8,9 and 10

Chapter 4

Portfolio Activity: Ethics in Sport Organizations

Consider the following situations (repeated from chapter 4). Choose one situation to respond to, and then use the table below it to answer the questions outlined in the guidelines for making ethical decisions from chapter 1.

Situation 1:

In recent years, several ethical issues have surfaced in the context of sport. For example, incidents involving drugs and cheating in sport; violence in sport; questionable behaviors from athletes, coaches, and referees on and off the court or field; overtraining of children involved in high-performance sport; eating disorders among athletes; recruitment violations within intercollegiate athletics programs; corruption in decision making; and athlete hazing have all had an effect on sport and sport organizations. As mentioned in the section on organizational culture, the Milton-Smith (2002) study of unethical practices by the members of the IOC and OCOG led to serious negative repercussions for both organizations. Although rules, procedures, and codes of ethics were developed within these organizations, the individuals responsible for upholding the standards of the organizations did not respect them. Managers and leaders of sport organizations are constantly facing situations, events, and issues that challenge their ability to make ethical decisions.

Making Decisions

In what ways might the guidelines for making ethical decisions, as outlined in chapter 1, have deterred unethical behavior by the IOC and OCOG managers who behaved unethically?

Recognize an ethical issue

1. Could this decision or situation be damaging to someone or to some group? Does this decision involve a choice between a good and bad alternative, or perhaps between two “goods” or between two “bads”?

2. Is this issue about more than what is legal or what is most efficient? If so, how?

Get the facts

3. What are the relevant facts of the case? What facts are not known? Can I learn more about the situation? Do I know enough to make a decision?

4. What individuals and groups have an important stake in the outcome? Are some concerns more important than others? Why?

5. What are the options for acting? Have all the relevant persons and groups been consulted? Have

I identified creative options?

Evaluate alternative actions

6. Evaluate the options by asking the following questions:

Which option will produce the most good and do the least harm (the utilitarian approach)?

Which option best respects the rights of all who have a stake (the rights approach)?

Which option treats people equally or proportionately (the justice approach)?

Which option best serves the community as a whole, not just some members (the common good approach)?

Which option leads me to act as the sort of person I want to be (the virtue approach)?

Make a decision and test it

7. Considering all these approaches, which option best addresses the situation?

8. If I told someone whom I respect—or told a television audience—which option I have chosen, what would they say?

Act and reflect on the outcome

Now that you have looked in-depth at this ethical dilemma, write an extended action plan (#9) and personal response (#10) based on questions 9 and 10 in the Guidelines for Making Ethical Decisions.

9. How can my decision be implemented with the greatest care and attention to the concerns of all stakeholders?

10. How did my decision turn out, and what have I learned from this specific situation?

Situation 2:

An extension of ethical considerations in sport organizations is the broader framing of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Carroll (1999) identified four dimensions of CSR; economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary. His view was that in being socially responsible, organizations should engage in behaviors that serve the organization financially, but that are also within the boundaries of the law, morally ethical (an obligation to do what is right and fair), as well as being a good corporate citizen by contributing to the community and improving the quality of life of those impacted by the organization’s activities. Porter and Kramer (2006) extended these concepts to consider the role of social responsibility as being a source of competitive advantage for organizations and that the capacity exists for companies to maximize their social agendas and, at the same time, advance their business agendas. In this way, ethics and social responsibility are now being woven into the fabric and strategy of many organizational activities. In sport, these efforts are being examined by several authors from many different perspectives including environmental responsibility (cf. Pfahl, 2011; Polite, Waller, Spearman & Trendafilova, 2012), community involvement and relations (Babiak & Wolfe, 2009), fan and customer perspectives (Walker & Kent, 2009), and philanthropy (Babiak & Tainsky, 2011).

Making Decisions

If you were a sport manager of a team or league how could you use the guidelines for making ethical decisions from chapter 1, to create a corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiative for your team or league? What would be the focus of your CSR initiative?

Recognize an ethical issue

1. Could this decision or situation be damaging to someone or to some group? Does this decision involve a choice between a good and bad alternative, or perhaps between two “goods” or between two “bads”?

2. Is this issue about more than what is legal or what is most efficient? If so, how?

Get the facts

3. What are the relevant facts of the case? What facts are not known? Can I learn more about the situation? Do I know enough to make a decision?

4. What individuals and groups have an important stake in the outcome? Are some concerns more important than others? Why?

5. What are the options for acting? Have all the relevant persons and groups been consulted? Have

I identified creative options?

Evaluate alternative actions

6. Evaluate the options by asking the following questions:

Which option will produce the most good and do the least harm (the utilitarian approach)?

Which option best respects the rights of all who have a stake (the rights approach)?

Which option treats people equally or proportionately (the justice approach)?

Which option best serves the community as a whole, not just some members (the common good approach)?

Which option leads me to act as the sort of person I want to be (the virtue approach)?

Make a decision and test it

7. Considering all these approaches, which option best addresses the situation?

8. If I told someone whom I respect—or told a television audience—which option I have chosen, what would they say?

Act and reflect on the outcome

Now that you have looked in-depth at this ethical dilemma, write an extended action plan (#9) and personal response (#10) based on questions 9 and 10 in the Guidelines for Making Ethical Decisions.

9. How can my decision be implemented with the greatest care and attention to the concerns of all stakeholders?

10. How did my decision turn out, and what have I learned from this specific situation?

Chapter 6

Portfolio Activity: Ethics in Community and Youth Sport

Consider the following scenario (repeated from chapter 6). Then use the table below to answer the questions outlined in the guidelines for making ethical decisions from chapter 1.

The Situation

One issue that has become increasingly difficult for sport managers to control is that of positive sportsmanship among participants, parents, and fans during and after athletic contests. Consider the case of a recent basketball game between Jefferson High School and Washington High School. The students of Jefferson High School come predominately from wealthy, white families. Students at Washington High School come mostly from middle or lower socio-economic class, non-white families. The two high schools are separated geographically only by ten miles. These factors contribute to the rivalry between the two schools. In the most recent varsity basketball game between the two schools, Jefferson High School had a commanding lead going into the final minutes of the game. Upon realizing the ensuing victory, the fans from Jefferson High School began yelling derogatory names at the Washington High School players based on their perceived race, ethnicity, and socio economic status. The Washington High School players were frustrated. They knew they had tried their hardest and were proud of their effort on the court, even though it resulted in a loss. However, they also felt embarrassed, discouraged, and ashamed as a result of the fans’ comments.

Making Decisions

Consider this situation from the viewpoint of the Jefferson High School athletic director. Should the athletic director create a sportsmanship policy for parents and fans who attend Jefferson High School athletic contests? If so, what steps could the athletic director take to create and implement this sportsmanship policy? Use the following table to help you evaluate this situation and illustrate your decision-making process.

Recognize an ethical issue

1. Could this decision or situation be damaging to someone or to some group? Does this decision involve a choice between a good and bad alternative, or perhaps between two “goods” or between two “bads”?

2. Is this issue about more than what is legal or what is most efficient? If so, how?

Get the facts

3. What are the relevant facts of the case? What facts are not known? Can I learn more about the situation? Do I know enough to make a decision?

4. What individuals and groups have an important stake in the outcome? Are some concerns more important than others? Why?

5. What are the options for acting? Have all the relevant persons and groups been consulted? Have

I identified creative options?

Evaluate alternative actions

6. Evaluate the options by asking the following questions:

Which option will produce the most good and do the least harm (the utilitarian approach)?

Which option best respects the rights of all who have a stake (the rights approach)?

Which option treats people equally or proportionately (the justice approach)?

Which option best serves the community as a whole, not just some members (the common good approach)?

Which option leads me to act as the sort of person I want to be (the virtue approach)?

Make a decision and test it

7. Considering all these approaches, which option best addresses the situation?

8. If I told someone whom I respect—or told a television audience—which option I have chosen, what would they say?

Act and reflect on the outcome

Now that you have looked in-depth at this ethical dilemma, write an extended action plan (#9) and personal response (#10) based on questions 9 and 10 in the Guidelines for Making Ethical Decisions.

9. How can my decision be implemented with the greatest care and attention to the concerns of all stakeholders?

10. How did my decision turn out, and what have I learned from this specific situation?

Chapter 7

Portfolio Activity: Critical Thinking in Interscholastic Athletics

Consider the following information (repeated from chapter 7). Use the table to identify which of the eight critical thinking questions from chapter 1 are relevant for evaluating the argument stated below, and provide a short statement describing why each question is relevant or not. Then answer each of the relevant critical thinking questions.

Proponents of high school sport stress the importance of athletics as an extension of the classroom learning experience. As covered earlier in this chapter, sport offers some unique benefits that are certainly laudable. For example, many argue that participation in sport builds character, teaches teamwork, and encourages fair play. Participants learn the rewards of hard work, self-discipline, and self-confidence. Participation often improves social adaptability. Students involved in extracurricular activities often have lower dropout rates, higher attendance rates, higher grade-point averages, and fewer discipline problems in school. Furthermore, students engaged in extracurricular activities are often less likely to use drugs or become teen parents.

The Argument

Through the benefits offered by participation, athletics is often viewed as an extension of the classroom learning experience.

Critical thinking questions

Applicable to this situation?

1. What are the issues and the conclusion?

Y / N

Rationale:

2. What are the reasons?

Y / N

Rationale:

3. What words or phrases are ambiguous?

Y / N

Rationale:

4. What are the value conflicts and assumptions?

Y / N

Rationale:

5. What are the descriptive assumptions?

Y / N

Rationale:

6. Does the reasoning contain fallacies?

Y / N

Rationale:

7. How good is the evidence?

Y / N

Rationale:

8. What significant information is omitted?

Y / N

Rationale:

Chapter 8

Web Search: Athletics and Gender Equity

Look up your school using the Equity in Athletics Data Analysis Cutting Tool (http://ope.ed.gov/athletics). Then review Dr. Christine Grant’s article “Football Bowl Subdivision Athletics Budgets Increase at Alarming Rate” at www.sportsmanagementresources.com/node/207, and consider her discussion of how an athletics administrator needs to allocate resources in a tiered structure, where some sports are designated as major sports while others are designated as minor sports.

Based on what you have found, would you conclude that your institution is spending equitably on men’s and women’s athletics programs? Provide an explanation for your conclusion.

Chapter 9

Web Search 2: Emerging Technology

Using the Internet, locate the schedules of the following teams, and determine how you can view or listen to their next game.

Team

How you can view or listen to their next game

Los Angeles Sparks (WNBA)


Denver
Nuggets (NBA)

Dayton Dragons (Minor League Baseball)


Houston
Texans (NFL)


Hartford
Wolfpack (Minor League Hockey)

Chapter 10

Web Search: Sport Management and Marketing Agency Internships

Visit the Web sites of the top sport management and marketing agencies listed in table 10.2 of your book. Compile a list of those agencies that have current or upcoming internship or part-time employment opportunities. What do the various agencies look for in an entry-level person?

Agencies

Qualifications for an entry-level position

 

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