Length: A minimum of 150 words per post, not including references
Citations: At least one high-level scholarly reference in APA per post from within the last 5 years
Citations need to be within 5 (Five) years
Context: Nursing in the USA
T6 W8 D1 R2
Pressure injuries and ulcers are very important to keep discussing because of their commonality, ease of being acquired amongst our vulnerable populations, and associated complications. Pressure ulcer damages from my experience can develop very quickly and complicate a patients condition severely. In Dlugasch and Story (2021) it is mentioned how pressure injuries can even result in as fast as one hour for some. They are also very expensive to treat and painful.
As for the pathophysiology of pressure injuries and ulcers, unrelieved and applied pressure against tissues, from ones own bones or devices, and reperfusion injury is involved. When pressure exceeds skin arteriolar pressure of 32 mmHg, hypoxia occurs (Dlugasch & Story, 2021). If this pressure isnt frequently relieved, for adequate perfusion to be restored, necrosis occurs. Often by this point, skin tissues die and slough off. The longer the pressure sustains, the more tissue becomes involved. Normally however, one frequently moves and constantly repositions themselves, even if it isnt noticed; therefore, avoiding pressure injuries without realizing it. Affected tissue, previously pale due to pressure cutting off circulation, might then be pink and have blanchable redness as reperfusion occurs; non-blanchable redness however might represent affected and dying tissue. Furthermore, pressure injuries also occur within the body over several tissue layers receiving increased pressure over a bony area. For example, when one sits, 300 mmHg of pressure is applied over the ischial tuberosities and onto surrounding tissues (Dlugasch & Story, 2021). Again, one might not realize it, but they often move and reposition their weight; constantly reperfusing tissues before they necrotize. One unable to reposition their weight and restore timely perfusion however, will develop necrosis in affected and deeper tissues. Additionally, the pathophysiology of pressure injuries also involves reperfusion injury (Dlugasch & Story, 2021). When reperfusion is restored, inflammation and reactive oxygen species further damage cellular membranes leading to further cellular death.
Lastly, the development of pressure injuries depend on various health factors, which is why some are more affected than others. Those developing pressure ulcers often have underlying diseases affecting circulation, have sensation impairments from neuropathies, cognitive or motor issues impairing mobility, and malnutrition making any wound healing more difficult than normally.
Dlugasch, L., & Story, L. (2021). Applied pathophysiology for the advanced practice nurse. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.