What are some differences between male and female intimacy?

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February 27, 2020
CASE STUDY ANALYSIS #2
February 27, 2020

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Can you please answer each Discussion question approx. 1/2page each approx. 137.5 words Discussion 1 Part 1: Describe at least 4 key differences between men and women described by Helen Fisher. AND Part 2: What are some differences between male and female intimacy? Readings & Activities Fisher Chapter 10: Men and Women Are Like Two Feet: They Need Each Other to Get Ahead Gender Differences in Mind Associated Media: The Nature of Love link= https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UybJzG_dts4 Gender Differences in the Brain by Helen Fisher, Ph.D. (important video!) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qSGd6Ojuw0Q Discussion 2 Read the material in the links to the left and check out the great videos below. 1. Are there any differences between gay and straight love? Why or why not? What does the evidence suggest regarding the similarities and differences between sexual majority and minority love? AND 2. Given what you have read, why is it so common for many heterosexuals to discuss and understand homosexuality only as same sex behavior, rather than as a complex identity no different than a heterosexual identity, with the drive to love and be loved at its core? NOTE: If you self identify as gay/lesbian/bi, what has been your experience with love? Share only what you are comfortable sharing. Readings & Activities [gaystraight-relationships-different/ link= https://glyswny.wordpress.com/lous-page/gaystraight-relationships-different/ ] Associated Media: iO Tillett Wright: Fifty shades of gay link = https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VAJ-5J21Rd0 Homosexual Love link = https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v1kcxSPLOEs Discussion 3 What is the difference between ″normal″ mood variation and clinically significant mood variations? Provide several examples. Readings Chapter 7 Discussion 4 Podcast Relationship Matters Podcast Number 55 “Sexualized, objectified, but not satisfied”: What are three key takeaways from this podcast? What is your experience/reaction?

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reserved.

Chapter 7
Mood Disorders and
Suicide

Abnormal Psychology
Seventeenth Edition

Jill M. Hooley | James N. Butcher
Matthew K. Nock | Susan Mineka

Copyright © 2017, 2014, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Multimedia Directory

• Slide 14 Martha: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
• Slide 29 Ann: Bipolar Disorder
• Slide 36 Feliziano: Living with Bipolar Disorder
• Slide 41 Depression
• Slide 43 Research close-up: Brain Stimulation

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Learning Objectives (1 of 3)

1.1 Explain how we define abnormality and classify mental
disorders.

1.2 Describe the advantages and disadvantages of
classification.

1.3 Explain how culture affects what is considered
abnormal and describe two different culture-specific
disorders.

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Learning Objectives (2 of 3)

7.5 Describe the causal factors influencing the
development and maintenance of bipolar disorders.

7.6 Explain how cultural factors can influence the
expression of mood disorders.

7.7 Describe and distinguish between different treatments
for mood disorders.

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Learning Objectives (3 of 3)

7.8 Describe the prevalence and clinical picture of suicidal
behaviors.

7.9 Explain the efforts currently used to prevent and treat
suicidal behaviors.

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Mood Disorders: An Overview

Mood disorders

•Defining feature = extremes
of emotion (affect)

•Other symptoms or co-
occurring disorders

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Mood Disorders: An Overview

Two key moods
• Depression

• feelings of extraordinary sadness
and dejection

• Mania
• intense and unrealistic feelings of

excitement and euphoria

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Types of Mood Disorders

Unipolar
depressive
disorders

• Only depressive
episodes

Bipolar depressive
disorders

• Manic and
depressive
episodes

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The Prevalence of Mood Disorders

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Demographic Differences in
the United States

Native Americans have relatively high rates
of depression

African-Americans have relatively low rates

U.S. rates of unipolar depression inversely
related to socioeconomic status

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Figure 7.1 Annual Prevalence of Mood Disorders Around the World
This figure shows the annual (12-month) prevalence of mood disorders using data collected via
household surveys in 17 different countries as part of the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative
(Adapted from WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium, 2004.)

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Unipolar Depressive Disorders

Major
Depressive

Disorder
(MDD)

• A major depressive episode
without having manic, hypomanic,
or mixed episodes

• Relapse and recurrence
• May begin at any point in lifespan,

incidence rises during adolescence
• May include additional symptoms

(specifiers)

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Table 7.1 Specifiers of Major Depressive Episodes

Specifier Characteristic Symptoms

With Melancholic Features
Three of the following: early morning awakening, depression worse in the morning, marked
psychomotor agitation or retardation, loss of appetite or weight, excessive guilt, qualitatively
different depressed mood

With Psychotic Features Delusions or hallucinations (usually mood congruent); feelings of guilt and worthlessness common

With Atypical Features
Mood reactivity—brightens to positive events; two of the four following symptoms: weight gain
or increase in appetite, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis (arms and legs feel as heavy as lead),
being acutely sensitive to interpersonal rejection

With Catatonic Features A range of psychomotor symptoms from motoric
immobility to extensive psychomotor activity, as well as mutism and
rigidity

With Seasonal Pattern
At least two or more episodes in past 2 years that have occurred at the same time (usually fall
or winter), and full remission at the same time (usually spring). No other nonseasonal episodes
in the same 2-year period

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Martha: Major Depressive Disorder
(MDD)

Click to see video with closed captioning

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Persistent Depressive Disorder

Mild to moderate version of depression

• Persistently depressed mood most of
the day for at least 2 years

• Intermittent normal moods occur
briefly

• Lifetime prevalence of 2.5 to 6%
• Average duration is 4-5 years

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Other Forms of Depression

Bereavement-
triggered depression

Postpartum
depression

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Causal Factors in Unipolar
Mood Disorders

Causal
Factors

Biological
causal factors

Psychological
causal factors

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Biological Causal Factors

Genetic
influences

Altered neuro-
transmitter

activity

Hormone &
immune system

regulation
abnormalities

Neuro-physical
& neuro-

anatomical
influences

Sleep and
biological
rhythms

Sex differences

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Psychological Causal Factors

Stressful life
events

Independent
vs.

dependent

Vulnerability
in response

to stress

Risk-related
vulnerability

factors

Personality
and cognitive

diatheses
Early

adversity

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Psychological Causal Factors

Th
eo

ris
ts Freud

Behaviorists

Cognitive model

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Figure 7.4 Beck’s Cognitive Model of Depression
According to Beck’s cognitive model of depression, certain kinds of early experiences can lead to the
formation of dysfunctional assumptions that leave a person vulnerable to depression later in life if certain
critical incidents (stressors) activate those assumptions. Once activated, these dysfunctional
assumptions trigger automatic thoughts that in turn produce depressive symptoms, which further fuel the
depressive automatic thoughts.
(Adapted from Fennell, 1989.)

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Figure 7.5 Negative Cognitive Triad
Beck’s cognitive model of depression describes a pattern of negative automatic thoughts. These
pessimistic predictions center on three themes: the self, the world, and the future.

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Psychological Causal Factors

Th
eo

rie
s

Reformulated
helplessness theory

Hopelessness theory

Excessive rumination

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Psychological Causal Factors
In

te
rp

er
so

na
l

ef
fe

ct
s

Lack of social support or social skills

Hostility and rejection from others

Marital dissatisfaction

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Bipolar and Related Disorders

Bipolar disorders

•Distinguished from unipolar
disorders by presence of
manic or hypomanic
episodes

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Cyclothymic Disorder

Cyclical mood swings

• Less severe than those of bipolar
disorder

• Symptoms present for at least 2 years
• Lacking severe symptoms and

psychotic features of bipolar disorder

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Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Bipolar I disorder

• Includes at
least one manic
or mixed
episode

Bipolar II
disorder

• Includes
hypomanic
episodes but
not full-blown
manic or mixed
episodes

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Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

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Ann: Bipolar Disorder

Click to see video with closed captioning

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Figure 7.7 The Manic-Depressive Spectrum
There is a spectrum of bipolarity in moods. All of us have our ups and downs, which are indicated here
as normal mood variation. People with a cyclothymic personality have more marked and regular mood
swings, and people with cyclothymic disorder go through periods when they meet the criteria for
dysthymia (except for the 2-year duration) and other periods when they meet the criteria for hypomania.
People with bipolar II disorder have periods of major depression and periods of hypomania. Unipolar
mania is an extremely rare condition. Finally, people with bipolar I disorder have periods of major
depression and periods of mania.
(Adapted from Frederick K. Goodwin and Kay R. Jamison. (2009). Manic Depressive Illness. Copyright ©
1990. Oxford University Press, Inc.)

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Causal Factors in Bipolar Disorders

Causal
factors

Biological Psychological

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Biological Causal Factors

Heredity

Norepinephrine,
serotonin, and
dopamine

Abnormalities in
transportation of
ions across
neural
membrane

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Biological Causal Factors

Cortisol
levels

Shifting
patterns of
blood flow to
prefrontal
cortex

Disturbances
in biological
rhythms

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Psychological Causal Factors

Ps
yc

ho
lo

gi
ca

l
ca

us
al

fa
ct

or
s
Stressful life events

Personality variables

Low social support

Pessimistic attributional
style

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Sociocultural Factors Affecting Unipolar
and Bipolar Disorders

Symptoms of
mood disorders

• Can differ
widely across
cultures and
demographic
groups

Prevalence of
mood disorders

• Also differs
across
cultures

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Feliziano: Living with Bipolar Disorder

Click to see video with closed captioning

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Cross-Cultural Differences
in Depressive Symptoms

• Western:
psychological
symptoms

• Non-Western:
physical
symptoms

Form of
depression

varies
across

cultures

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Cross-Cultural Differences in
Prevalence

Rates of depression vary more than rates
of bipolar disorder

Lifetime prevalence of depression is 17-
19% in the U.S., but only 1.5% in Taiwan

Reasons for different rates of depression
are not yet clear

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Treatments and Outcomes

Pharmacotherapy

Alternative
biological

treatments

Psychotherapy

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Pharmacotherapy

Antidepressants, mood-
stabilizing, antipsychotic

drugs used to treat
mood disorders

Lithium common mood
stabilizer for bipolar

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Depression

Click to see video with closed captioning

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Alternative Biological Treatments

Electroconvulsive
therapy

Transcranial magnetic
stimulation

Deep brain stimulation

Bright light therapy

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Research close-up: Brain Stimulation

Click to see video with closed captioning

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Psychotherapy

Forms of effective
psychotherapy
• Cognitive-behavioral

therapy
• Behavioral activation

treatment
• Interpersonal therapy
• Family and marital

therapy

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Suicide: The Clinical Picture and the
Causal Pattern

Suicide risk
significant factor

in all types of
depression

Suicide is the
15th leading

cause of death
in the world

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Figure 7.11 Suicide Around the World
The rate of suicide varies dramatically in different parts of the world, as shown in this figure using data
from the World Health Organization. More people die each year by suicide than by all other forms of
violence combined.
(Adapted from World Health Organization, http://www.who.int/mental_health/suicide-prevention/en.)

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Suicide: The Clinical Picture and the
Causal Pattern

Distinguish
between:

Suicidal
self-injury

Nonsuicidal
self-injury

(NSSI)

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The Clinical Picture and
the Causal Pattern

Who Attempts and Dies by Suicide?

Psychological Disorders

Other Psychosocial Factors Associated with
Suicide

Biological Causal Factors

Theoretical Models of Suicidal Behavior

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Who Attempts and
Dies by Suicide?

Suicide
attempts
and age

Completed
suicides
and age

Gender
differences

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Figure 7.12 Cumulative Prevalence of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors During Adolescence
Data from the National Comorbidity Survey–Adolescent Supplement, a nationally representative survey
of over 10,000 U.S. adolescents, show that very few people think about suicide during childhood, but
then the percentage of people who have ever thought about suicide, plan suicide, or make a suicide
attempt increases dramatically during adolescence. These data are from the United States (Nock et al.,
2013), and a very similar pattern is observed in other countries around the world (Nock, Borges, Bromet,
Alonso, et al., 2008).
(Adapted from Nock, M. K., Green, J. G., Hwang, I., McLaughlin, K. A., Sampson, N. A., Zaslavsky, A.
M., & Kessler, R. C. (2013). Prevalence, correlates and treatment of lifetime suicidal behavior among
adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication–Adolescent Supplement (NCS-
A). JAMA Psychiatry, 70, 300–310.)

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Psychological Disorders

Increase
risk of

suicide

• Posttraumatic stress
disorder

• Bipolar disorder
• Conduct disorder
• Intermittent explosive

disorder

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Other Psychosocial Factors Associated
with Suicide

Psychosocial
factors

Impulsivity

Aggression

Pessimism

Family psychopathology or instability

Hopelessness

Negative affectivity

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Biological Factors

Genetics

Reduced
serotonergic
activity

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Sociocultural Factors

Ethnicity

• Whites have
higher rates
of suicide
than African
Americans

Rates of
suicide

• Vary across
cultures and
religions

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Theoretical Models of Suicidal
Behavior

Diathesis–stress
models

Joiner’s
interpersonal-
psychological

model of suicide

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Figure 7.13 Joiner’s Interpersonal-Psychological Model of Suicide
Joiner proposes that people desire to die by suicide when they perceive that they are a burden to others
and experience a sense of thwarted belongingness. However, they cannot act on this suicidal desire
unless they also have acquired the capacity for suicide. When these three factors come together, Joiner
argues, a person is at high risk for suicide.
(Adapted from Joiner, 2005.)

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Treatment of Mental Disorders

Prevention of
suicide can take

the form of
treatment of the

underlying mental
disorder(s)

Antidepressant
medication or lithium

Benzodiazepines

Cognitive-behavioral
therapy

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Crisis Intervention

Cope with
immediate

crisis

Maintain
supportive

contact

Help show
that distress
is impairing
judgment

Help show
distress in

not endless

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Focus on High-Risk Groups
and Other Measures

Provide treatment aimed
directly at decreasing
suicidal thoughts and

behaviors among those
already experiencing these

outcomes

Use cognitive-behavioral
therapy for suicide

prevention for use with
adolescents who have

attempted suicide

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Unresolved Issues

Is there a right to die?

Not all societies agree that others
should interfere with suicide

Challenging ethical and legal questions
remain

 

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